It is theorized that it may be due to a mycotoxin or a salicylate produced within the fruit.
If a dog ingests raisins, grapes or current-type fruit, can can lead to fatal kidney failure. Early signs may begin with 30 minutes to several hours, though kidney failure often develops 1 to 3 days from the time of ingestion.
Signs of poisoning include: vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and/or tremors/seizures. Left untreated (or if treatment cannot provide relief) it can then lead to a complete shut-down of the kidneys, coma and then death.
Within this group of toxic foods, raisins are the most deadly. The number of raisins that are toxic to Chihuahuas
is estimated to be .07 oz. per 1 lb. of body weight. This means that for a 5-pound Chihuahua, .35 oz. (just 1/16 of a cup) can be deadly.
it is estimated that .18 oz. per 1 lb. of body weight is toxic. This means that for a 5-pound Chihuahua, just .9 oz. of grapes can be deadly. A typical grape is about .2 ounces. Therefore, 1 grape per 1 pound of body weight is extremely dangerous, if not deadly.
Fruit seeds, certain whole fruits
Some fruit seeds contain cyanide, which is a strong poison. Some fruits whose seeds are toxic are just fine for dogs to eat, however they must be cored (remove entire core, ensure seeds are not present) such as:
- and cherries
Since cherries are very small and it's a lot of work to remove the pits, many sources list cherries as being toxic to canines; however, technically the flesh and skin of the fruit is just fine for dogs to eat.
The reason that humans can eat some seeds and be fine but this is dangerous to canines is because the seeds are protected by a very hard shell; most humans swallow the seeds whole however dogs have much sharper teeth and may break the seed(s) open.
The amount of fruit seeds that are lethal to dogs
varies by the size of the dog. In addition, the number would have to be an estimate and
actual poisoning is dependent on if the shells of the seeds were broken open. With adult humans, about 1/2 cup of apple seeds (open) are lethal. For a tiny dog like the Chihuahua, one could assume that much less, perhaps 1/20 of a cup could be fatal.
Toxic damage can occur acutely (one-time ingestion) or if a dog were to eat seeds over the course of time, there can be cumulative damage.
Cyanide kills by depriving the cells in the body of oxygen. Signs of cyanide poisoning include: confusion, abnormal behavior, lethargy, excessive sleepiness, trouble breathing, vomiting, headache, seizures, coma, and then death. Symptoms may be progressive; however, for some dogs the reaction is fast with an almost immediate effect on the heart.
If a Chihuahua were to ingest seeds for a while and there was a slow buildup, signs include headache (some dogs press their head into walls, mattresses or other objects), anxiety, chest pain, abdominal pain and vomiting.
Some sources list this as extremely toxic and others tout it as a great medicine for canines. Like onions (see below), garlic contains thiosulphate, which is toxic in high enough qualities. Consensus among many vets seems to be that whole pieces of garlic can cause gastroenteritis, and that long term ingestion of small amounts can cause hemolytic anemia.
The amount that would be considered toxic
is 5 grams for each kg (2.2 lbs.) of body weight. Generally, a small sprinkling of garlic powder will not cause toxicity and is safe.
Nuts (certain ones)
Though not toxic, pecans, pistachios, hickory nuts, and almonds can cause upset stomach.
Walnuts can cause a poisoning that can lead to seizures or neurological symptoms.
The amount of macadamia needed to make a dog ill
is 2.4 g of nuts/ per kg (2.2 lbs) of body weight.
Onions contain an ingredient called thiosulphate (as does garlic, see above) which is toxic to dogs. Ingesting pieces of onion can cause a toxicity called Heinz Body Anemia (also known as Hemolytic anemia) in which red blood cells are destroyed. Signs include pale gums, discolored urine (often red or brown), rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, lethargy decreased appetite and/or depression.
The amount of onion that is toxic to dogs
is 15 to 30 grams per 1 kg (2.2 lbs.) of body weight.
This sugar substitute is toxic to canines. It can be found in all sort of foods including sugar-free gum, hard candies, breath mints and in some baked goods. Always check labels to see if a food contains Xylitol, if you are thinking about giving something to your Chihuahua or if your dog got into something that he was not supposed to.
If ingested, this can cause hypoglycemia (a rapid drop in blood sugar levels), which can lead to coma or death if severe and if not treated. Extremely high doses can cause liver failure.
Signs of hypoglycemia include weakness, sleepiness, confusion, lack of coordination. If not treated, it can lead to coma or even death.
This is considered to be even more toxic to dogs than chocolate; the amount toxic to dogs
is 50 mg per lb. of body weight. Some example of products with Xylitol and the amounts within them include: Trident Xtra Care contains .14 grams per piece, Icebreaker Ice Cubes contains 1.15 grams per piece and Xyloburst gum has 1 gram per piece.